J.W. Morrice

 
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Artist CV:
BORN: Montreal, 1865 DIED:  Tunis, Tunisia, 1924

STUDIED:
University of Toronto, 1882-1886
Law, Osgoode Hall, 1886-1889
Académie Julian, Paris, c.1892

PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES:
Left Canada for Europe in 1890 and settled in Paris.  While travelling and living in Europe he made acquaintance and worked with many of the leading artists of the time.  During his life he travelled to: Italy, Belgium, Spain, Holland, Great Britain, Algeria, Jamaica, North Africa, Cuba, and Trinidad.  Approximately very year  Morrice returned to Canada and sketched in Quebec and Montreal.  Morrice was a pioneer of post-impressionism and had an important influence on the development of Canadian painting.

SELECTED EXHIBITIONS:
1888, Royal Canadian Academy annual exhibition
1989, spring Show, Montreal Art Association
1925, the art Association of Montreal
1926, Galerie Simonson, Paris
1932, Art Gallery of Toronto
1937-1938, National Gallery of Canada
1953, Royal Canadian Academy
1965, National Gallery of Canada
Never had a one man show while he was alive

SELECTED PUBLIC COLLECTIONS:
McMichael Canadian Art Collection
Musée du Quebec Musée National d’art Moderne
Addison Gallery of American Art
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Montréal
Tate Gallery
Terra Foundation of the Arts
National Gallery of Canada
Art Gallery of Ontario
Vancouver Art Gallery
Museum of Modern Art, Moscow
Musée National Du Louvre


James Wilson Morrice - Biography
  
James Wilson Morrice was born in Montreal in 1865, the son of a wealthy merchant. From 1882 to 1889, he studied in Toronto to become a lawyer. As a student he began to paint landscapes in the Adirondacks and at Lake Champlain. He exhibited a painting with the Royal Canadian Academy in 1888, and in 1889, two of his paintings were hung in the spring show of the Montreal Art Association. When he was 24, he abandoned law to become an artist. He travelled to Europe, where he studied art at the Académie Julian with Henri Harpignies and became friends with Henri Matisse, Albert Marquet, and other avant-garde French artists.

Morrice lived in Paris, but until the death of his parents he spent most of his winters in Montreal, sometimes sketching with Maurice Cullen and William Brymner, two Canadian impressionists. An accomplished musician and avid reader, Morrice established himself in the English-speaking literary and art circles of Paris. He adopted a way of working which he would continue the rest of his life, going out each day to record his impressions - on small wooden panels, some of them no bigger than a postcard, the bigger works were done in his studio at a later time.

Morrice was a wealthy man and did not have to work for a living. This gave him the freedom to travel to Italy, Belgium, Holland, Great Britain, Algeria, Jamaica, and Cuba to paint. Twice he travelled with Matisse to paint in Tangier (1912 and 1913). During World War I, he was commissioned to paint the Canadian troops in action in Picardy. At this time he also started a series of portraits and model studies since travelling was more difficult. After the war his health began to deteriorate, having developed stomach problems due to alcohol abuse. Feeling well again around Christmas 1920, Morrice spent a few weeks in Canada, painting around Quebec City, then a few weeks in Trinidad before returning to Paris. In the summer of 1922 he travelled to Algiers, where he painted with Albert Marquet. After this trip his health rapidly deteriorated and was unable to paint anymore. Morrice died while on a visit to Tunis in January 1924.

Courtesy Gallerie Walter Klinkoff


MORRICE, James Wilson

1865-1924

Born in Montreal, P.Q., the third of seven sons of David Morrice textile manu­facturer, merchant, financier (Dir. Bank of Mtl.; Pres. Penman's Ltd.; Pres. Mtl. Invest. & Freehold Co., etc., etc.) a native of Perthshire, Scotland. The elder Morrice was an enthusiastic supporter of the church and the arts, especially of the Montreal Art Association and the Royal Canadian Academy. Young James was brought up in typical surroundings of a wealthy household with all the material needs available. On the walls of their home were fine works of art. His father however would later have reservations about him becoming an artist because of the financial uncertainty many artists suffered. The Morrices were orthodox Pres­byterians and so they adhered to the practice of keeping the Sabbath holy. Receiving visitors on Sunday was discouraged and reading weekly papers was forbidden. Much of their time on that day was to be spent in meditation. At an early age young Morrice began to draw and carve in wood. He loved carving sail boats and his mother would make the sails for them. He was never to lose his love of boats nor art. He attended a private school on Sherbrooke Street where he was a quiet student but participated in sports despite his small physique. In his Latin books he sometimes made sketches of his classmates. But none of his early art work gave any indication that he would become an outstanding painter. In 1882 at the age of seventeen he entered the University of Toronto where he was an average student and received his B.A. in 1886. During his study at university he began doing water colours. He had also taken up the flute and became an accomplished player. Every so often he joined his fellow students in making the rounds of the saloons and it was then that he first acquired a taste for strong drink. He did his painting on the outskirts of Toronto, along the Don River, in the Adirondacks or at Lake Champlain. After graduation he entered Osgoode Hall, Toronto, where he studied law and was called to the Bar of Ontario in 1889. Up to then he had been following his father's wishes. The senior Morrice wanted his son to have the security of a profession. But James' ambitions lay elsewhere. All during his later college years his interest in painting had been growing and the idea of becoming a lawyer began to bore him. While attending Osgoode Hall he submitted a painting to the Ontario Society of Artists but it was rejected. He continued painting while articling for a firm of lawyers in Toronto. Then one of his compositions was accepted in the annual exhibition of the Royal Canadian Academy. The following year he had two of his paintings accepted at the spring salon of the Montreal Art Association. By 1889 evidence of his talent began to appear in his work. After completing his legal studies he made it clear to his father that he wanted to become an artist. He might not have succeeded in persuading the elder Morrice to give his support had it not been for Sir William Van Horne, a neighbour in Montreal, who had seen some of young Morrice's work and was convinced of his talent. Van Horne purchased either at that time or later, one of Morrice's paintings from William Scott & Sons of Montreal. He encouraged the young man and allowed him to see his magnificent art collection. With persuasion from Van Horne and William Scott and the determination of his own son, the elder Morrice agreed to pay for James' art education abroad in the form of an allowance each month. The young man departed for Europe in 1890 and visited the city of Dordrecht, Holland, which had been the subject of artists' canvases he had seen in Canadian collections. Eventually he arrived in Paris alone and took a room in Hotel Moderne, Place de la République, located in an unspectacular district of the city. He enrolled in the Académie Julian where he studied for a short period until practical jokes, for which this institution was notorious, drove him from the school in utter disgust. The last straw had been added when a student broke a long round loaf of bread over his head while he was busily engaged in making a study at his easel. He was attracted by the landscapes of Henri Harpignies and he persuaded the old man, then in his seventies, to criticize his work once a week for a fee. Harpignies was a painter of the Barbizon school and much influenced by Corot. Morrice considered his criticisms the only tuition of any importance in Paris. Harpignies expressed in his own work the changing effects of atmosphere and sunlight and achieved delicacy in the use of grey-green for grass and trees, ochre tones for dry earth and blues and greys for skies. He added a touch of red in his compositions usually on the clothing of people. Paintings by Morrice around 1895 show considerable influence of this mentor. In Paris those first few years Morrice spoke or understood little French and therefore mingled mainly with British and American artists. He was an avid reader who took a particular delight in poetry and coupled with his personal charm he blended easily in literary circles gravitating for the most part in the cafés of the Latin Quarter and the Montmartre area. Of particular importance was the Chat Blanc restaurant in the Montparnasse district where a group of intellectuals visited, including Oscar Wilde, E. Arnold Bennett, Aubrey Beardsley, Somerset Maugham, Augustus John, Walter Sickert, Charles Condor and others. They accepted Morrice in their company and both Maugham and Bennett were so impressed with his personality that they drew upon it for characters in their books. Morrice emerges as the poet Cronshaw of Maugham's Of Human Bondage, as Warren in The Magician also as Priam Farll in Bennett's Buried Alive. Around this period he met Maurice Prendergast, William Glackens and Robert Henri all in Paris to study. All three Americans later became members of 'The Eight' in United States. They made trips to the coast towns and villages of Brittany, Normandy and elsewhere. In 1891 Morrice was at St. Malo and Dinard with Prendergast and Conder and later at Dieppe with Conder, Prendergast and Sickert (whom he probably met at Dieppe). In 1892 he visited Holland. By 1893 he had become greatly influenced by the work of Whistler who in turn thought highly enough of the Canadian's work to place it in the same category as Monet, Degas, Fantin-Latour, Harpignies, Zorn and Cottet (all exhibitors in the Third Exhibition of the International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers). Finally Maurice Cullen arrived on the scene to study at the Beaux-Arts and it was not long before they met at the Café de Versailles. The two Canadians travelled to Venice together during 1896-97 and found good sketching grounds both day and night along its canals with its unique traffic of gondolas. Maurice returned to Venice several times between 1896 and 1906 with Prendergast, Pennell and Marquet. In Paris his first studio was located in the highest area of the city (Montmartre). He then moved to the Left Bank in 1899. Here at Number 45 Quai des Grands-Augustins, Morrice rented a dingy apartment in the old stone building which became his studio and living quarters. Through the French windows he had a magnificent view looking towards the Seine and it seems that this was the most important factor to him in the otherwise drab surroundings. Over the years friends and relatives urged him to find something more suitable but to no avail. He made that apartment his home base for a good part of his life. From time to time Morrice did figure and portrait studies and advertised for a model. His ad was answered by a young girl of eighteen, plump, good-natured and generally attractive. Her name was Lea Cadoret. She posed for him five or six times and then they fell in love. At that time she was living with her aunt who owned a pastry shop in the neighbourhood on Boulevard St.-Germain. Morrice offered to support her and she agreed and became his mistress. He found a flat for her on Boulevard St. Michel. Morrice, then thirty-three, at times mentioned casually to some of his friends that he had a middle aged woman companion. His closer friends however came to know her (Conder and later Marquet, Matisse and others). Throughout his life she was at his side when he needed her. Morrice was always fair to her with the exception of when he travelled abroad. She never found out he was gone until she received a post card. Their relationship seems to have been strengthened by them having their own respective places to live. This gave Morrice freedom to come and go as he pleased and to paint in his studio free from distraction. This left Lea also relatively free. They had very few quarrels. But she did accompany him to the opera or various other places and often in the afternoon when he painted by the cafe tables of Paris: Sometimes she would step forward for him into the scene if he wanted a figure in his composition. When he visited or travelled he took his flute with him. He performed with ease the music of Bach, Schubert and other composers. At times he would visit Gabriel Thompson, a Welsh painter, who owned a piano and they would perform their music together in the company of friends like Roderic O'Connor, the Irish painter, and Clive Bell, who became a prominent art writer. In his painting Morrice began to move into prominence. In 1901 he exhibited at the International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers in London, England, and continued to show with this group until 1914. He became an honourary member of the Royal Canadian Academy in 1914. He won a silver medal in 1901 at the Pan American Exhibitions, Buffalo; mingled with noted writers and artists at Le Chat Blanc restaurant, Café Versailles, Café Alençon and Closerie des Lilas, all in Paris. In 1902 he went to Florence, Venice and Siena with Maurice Cullen and William Brymner. A painting of his was bought by the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and another was bought by the Société National des Beaux-Arts for the French National Collection in 1904. In 1905 he exhibited at the first Salon d'Automne, Paris. In 1906 he visited Dennemont, Antwerp and one of his paintings was purchased by the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyons and he began to exhibit at the Carnegie International. Each year he returned to Canada for a few months to reunite with his family and good friends in Montreal. On his way he painted scenes on board ship such as En Plein Mer one of his finest works. Once home he went sketching with Maurice Cullen and William Brymner mainly around Quebec City and other spots. From his experience in Europe he changed his handling of snow from white to olive green, blue grey and later, as he became more familiar with the Impressionists, he made purple, violet and ochre shades in his snow. Brymner spent his holidays in Paris. Morrice also kept in touch with Newton MacTavish art critic and trustee of the National Gallery of Canada. Most of his contacts with MacTavish were by letters which in later years have provided valuable information for art historians and writers. He became a charter member of the Canadian Art Club, Toronto, in 1907 and also spent some time in New York City during the same year. He turned his attentions to the south of Europe, North Africa and the West Indies. He had been influenced by the work of Gauguin and Matisse. He had met Henri Matisse at one of the salons in Paris and through him had become interested in North Africa. In the spring of 1910 he visited Marrakesh and spent the next winter (1911-12) in Tangier with the intention of meeting Matisse. He wanted to know the artist and his work better. Matisse never suspected his meeting with Morrice was anything more than chance. The two men got on splendidly in the evenings chatting beside the café tables but at no time did they ever paint together. At the end of the season Matisse would spread out his finished paintings for Morrice to view. The next year (1912-13) both men returned to Tangiers but did not, as before, lodge in the same hotel. Outside their painting hours they continued to spend many of their evenings together. Matisse once remarked years later that Morrice drank as many glasses of alcohol as he did mineral water. The Moorish pedlars of tourist items would pester the two men. Matisse would joke with them, exchanging playful teasing, but Morrice could not endure them, would lose his temper and demand that they leave him alone. Their revenge was complete when they went running after him in the streets pointing and yelling 'whiskey, whiskey.' He returned to North Africa many times and it is believed that he had a studio in Marrakesh for a season. After the death of his parents in 1914 Morrice made fewer and fewer visits to North America. At the outbreak of the First World War air raids on Paris and the blackouts brought an abrupt end to his evening activities. Despondent he left for London where he spent a short period then on to Canada and from there to Cuba. He was back in Paris by the spring of 1915. In 1916 Lea persuaded him to move to a cleaner and more comfortable studio on Quai de la Tournelle not far from his Quai des Grands Augustins quarters. He was on the same side of the river with a similar view at a slightly wider section of the Seine opposite the Ile St. Louis. He painted scenes from both of his studios which were much the same in composition. When his father died in 1914 Morrice received a sizable share from his estate which left him fairly wealthy. But he never displayed any lavishness with the exception of his fine clothing. When he travelled he stayed in second-class hotels and developed the habit of playing poor. Through the years he had a great liking for alcohol especially absinthe and the doctors whom he visited warned him to stop drinking or risk going blind. On one occasion when he was ill he went to hospital. He chose an inexpensive institution operated by a religious brotherhood of St. Jean de Dieu on Rue Odinet, Paris. His food was brought to him on tin plates and tea in tin mugs. He was quite content with these conditions even though he could have afforded better accommodation in a local American hospital. His deteriorating health was one of the reasons why he sought refuge in warmer climates. He had been travelling south with Lea for a number of years and decided to buy her a house in Cagnes-Sur-Mer not far from Nice. The dwelling had large rooms and a gravelled terrace with a fine view. Morrice himself only spent an hour in the house to inspect those aspects which he thought would make her happy. In 1917 he worked in his new studio in Paris and the following year he was commissioned by P.G. Konody, English critic who was familiar with his work, to do a large canvas depicting Canadian soldiers. He got into uniform, shaved off his beard and made studies in his sketch books in the war zone. He then proceeded with larger sketches in oils and finally produced a painting 108 x 144 of Canadian soldiers trudging along a muddy road. The work is now in the Canadian War Collection. In 1919 he was back in Marrakesh and his health began to give him serious trouble. In 1920 he made his last trip to the West Indies and stayed in a house lent to him by a man named Austin (a Montreal banker), then later he visited Trinidad and returned to Paris in 1921. He was at Cagnes again in 1922 where he met Renoir and from there went to Nice, then to Corsica and finally Algiers where Lea joined him. She watched him do an oil and some water colours of the harbour from the window of his hotel room. Albert Marquet, the French painter was there also and they spent some time together. When Lea was leaving, Marquet and Morrice saw her off at the boat. Morrice, deeply moved, perhaps with the thought that his time was running out, cried as she left. In April of 1922 he returned to Paris where Edwin Holgate visited him at his studio and saw what were probably his last few paintings. There were water colours Morrice did which Holgate felt had the same beauty of tone as his oils. One of these paintings was acquired by Hart House and reproduced in J. Russell Harper's Canadian Paintings In Hart House (P. 8, 1955). It is generally felt that Morrice did little painting after the summer of 1922, the same year that he took a water cure at Evian-les-Bains, Lake Geneva, Switzerland, which unfortunately did nothing for his condition. From there he went to Leysons to see a friend convalescing in a T.B. sanatorium, then to his brother Arthur's home at Montreux. It was there that he was found on his hotel bed seriously ill. He was rushed to hospital and operated on at which time intestinal ulcers were discovered. He recovered sufficiently to travel and returned to Paris. From then on he kept to himself much of the time and it was even rumoured in Paris that he had died. The Salon d'Automne with which he had been exhibiting over the years listed him as deceased. In the winter of 1923 Morrice visited his brother again in Switzerland, also Nice where he spent Christmas day with Lea, and from there to Mentone (not far away) where he met William Brymner and his wife who were staying in France at that time. The Brymners were shocked to see how ill he looked; later they received a post card from him marked Palermo, Sicily, and this seems to have been the last note he wrote to anyone himself. He sailed for Tunis where he was stricken by another attack and rushed to the French military hospital. He asked that messages be sent to his relatives and to Lea Cadoret. He died in Tunis on January 23, 1924, and was buried on the 25th in the European cemetery. At his funeral were an English Church clergyman, the English Consul and the French doctor. This cemetery until recently was called Cemetery of the Avenue Taieb Mehiri and was in the process of being decommissioned in 1968 to allow Belvedere Park, which the cemetery adjoins, to be enlarged. It was thought that Morrice's remains would be moved to another cemetery called El Borgel. Lea was alive in 1959 and was still dividing her time between Paris and Nice at the age of seventy-eight. She had a number of Morrice's paintings and sold some of them to the Morrice family in Montreal but she was reluctant to sell any of his work to art dealers. Morrice himself had very little to do with the dealers by preference with the exception of Scott and Sons of Montreal. It was not until after his death that his paintings began to appear on the walls of art dealers in Europe and Canada. Throughout his life he made presents of his panels to his friends in many countries. Many of these oil paintings on wooden panels were no larger that a standard post card but they were produced in all sizes (e.g. 3-5/8 x 6-1/8, 4-1/2 x 5-3/4, 6 x 5, 9-1/4 x 13, etc). One estimate is that he did at least five hundred panel sketches of which one hundred were in collections of Parisians alone. From these little panels and from his small sketch books he made his larger canvases. All nineteen of his sketch books were acquired by the National Gallery of Canada. The panels were kept in specially made white boxes. Gaston Latouche is credited with giving Morrice the idea of painting miniature scenes out-of-doors. Morrice is credited with introducing the use of the panels to Canadian students and artists. Morrice seems to have gotten the idea for his small sketch box from the photographic plate containers commonly in use at that time. The box measured six by seven inches so that he could carry it in his coat pocket. His brushes were carried in a leather cigar case (usually three brushes). Slits in the box held a panel firmly while the inside cover of the box doubled as his palette. The portrait painter Gerald Kelly often sat with Morrice while he was making his tiny sketches. Much of what we know today about Morrice's sketching procedure was passed on by Kelly. His larger canvases were made by working from the back­ground design forwards: red applied behind the blue of the sky, then the blue, next olives or lemons for the houses or trees; or in winter scenes he would at this point add blue, purples and violets of the snow. Loosely interpreted minor details were then added. In his early canvases he sometimes painted a new scene over an old one although he made some effort to scrape part of the old one off. In his later work he thinned his colours so that he could rub them together to create a blended effect. Signing J.W. Morrice, he seldom dated his work. The following is an attempt to list his influences and changes in technique with dates denoting the beginning of the influence or change: Dutch and Barbison (1889); Harpignies (1890); Walter Sickert (1891); James McNeill Whistler (1892); Courbet, Gaston La Touche, Charles Cottet (1905); he applied thin washes with white canvas showing through (1905-10); Fauves (1910); Matisse (1911); starts treating his canvases with reddish stain giving a flesh-coloured glow to his work (1910) although there seems to have been a reddish touch to his work from the beginning; paints on thin linen canvases which he purchased directly from dealers with no underpainting of his own. Some other artists who probably influenced Morrice include Monet, Manet, Sisley and Prendergast. Morrice never had a one-man show of his work while he was alive nor did he seem to have wanted one. All of the showings of his work took place after his death and are as follows: The Art Association of Montreal (125 work, 1925); Galerie Simonson, Paris (53 works, 1926); Art Gallery of Toronto (26 works, 1932); Jeu de Paume, Paris (47 works, 1927); Société National des Beaux-Arts, Paris (7 works, 1933); National Gallery of Canada, Art Gallery of Toronto, Art Assoc. of Mtl. (131 works, 1937-38); Royal Canadian Academy (45 works, 1953); The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, National Gallery of Canada (150 works, 1965); National Gallery of Canada, Holburne of Menstrie Museum, Bath, Eng. (45 works, 1968). He is represented in the following collections: Vancouver Art Gallery; Winnipeg Art Gallery; London Public Library & Art Museum, Ont.; Art Gallery of Hamilton, Ont.; Art Gallery of Ontario; Hart House, Tor.; The McMichael Canadian Collection, Kleinburg, Ont.; National Gallery of Canada; Montreal Museum of Fine Arts; The Mount Royal Club, Mtl.; McGill Univ., Mtl.; Musée du Québec; Beaverbrook Art Gallery, Fred., N.B.; Pennsylvania Museum of Fine Arts, Pa.; Tate Gallery, London, Eng.; Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris; Musée National du Louvre, Paris; Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyons, France; Museum of Modern Western Art, Moscow; Heritage Museum, Leningrad, and elsewhere. His work is in many private collections including: Andrée & Maurice Corbeil, Mtl.; Mr. David R. Morrice, Mtl.; Miss F. Eleanore Morrice, Mtl.; Mr. H. Heward Stikeman, Q.C., Mtl.; Mr. & Mrs. Frazer Eliott, Mtl.; Jules Bazin, Mtl.; Mr. & Mrs. Jules Loeb, Tor.; Murray Vaughan, Mtl. and many others. An exhaustive study on Morrice was carried out during 1935-36 by Donald W. Buchanan who received a research fellowship from the Carnegie Foundation of New York. He visited Europe and contacted Gerald F. Kelly, R.A., and Clive Bell in London, Lea Cadoret in Paris, André Schoeller and his secretary who put him in touch with Louis Vauxcelles (prominent French art critic), Henri Matisse, Somerset Maugham and others. In Canada he was also aided by Newton MacTavish, David Morrice (the painter's nephew) and F.R. Heaton (successor at James Scott & Son). Buchanan also discovered over fifty photographic plates of Morrice's paintings dating before 1913. They had been photographed by a firm Crevaux which went out of business. Owned next by a man in Paris, the plates were sold to the National Gallery of Canada through Buchanan who acted on behalf of the Gallery. In 1936 Buchanan's definitive work James Wilson Morrice was published by Ryerson Press, Toronto, in which a catalogue raisonné of 193 paintings with brief descriptions, exhibit records, publication records, and names of owners of each painting during the time of the book's publication. Some of the paintings listed however could not be traced as to their ownership but were known to exist through reproductions or photographs. In his book The Growth of Canadian Painting Buchanan summed up Morrice's Canadian work as follows: The feeling which Morrice had for Canadian landscape, particularly its winter atmosphere, was true. But in his Quebec paintings he was not trying to tell one, as in a lesson, that his was nationalist landscape and northern air and skies; his approach, . . . was a much more subtle and more sub­jective one than that. The Group of Seven came after him and A.Y. Jackson, who, as a student, had always been strongly moved by Morrice's works, was, in a sense, one of his disciples. But Morrice did not have that same urgency of belief in Canadian nature which Jackson and his colleagues did . . . as he grew older, he mingled in Paris with those advanced painters who had formed the Salon d'Automne, and this brought him close in understanding to men like Matisse, who tried to organize the design of the picture surface by modulations, changes and contrasts in colour, as much as by line and perspective. His paintings were eagerly acquired during his lifetime by discriminating collectors in Paris. Appreciation of him by his fellow-artists also grew with the years. After his death, Matisse addressed to the editor of L'Art et Les Artistes a sincere letter in tribute to his friend, whom he called 'the artist with the delicate eye, so pleasing with a touching tenderness in the rendering of landscapes of closely allied values;' at the same time, Dunoyer de Segonzac organised a memorial exhibition of his work at the Salon d'Automne, an honour which that distinguished organisation had rarely bestowed before on a foreign artist. Similar recognition, especially for his later paintings, was to arrive more slowly in Canada. Those earlier and more sombre snow-scenes, done with pigment laid on thickly and with considerable over-painting . . . had sold well in Montreal, but after 1908, when more subtle and less obviously naturalistic colours began to creep into his painting and his style became more broadly calligraphic, his work found few buyers at home. In disgust, he ceased to exhibit in Montreal and soon forsook Canada entirely, except for one or two brief visits in 1917 and 1919 when he was en route from Paris to the West Indies. Today his paintings are eagerly sought after and sell for high prices.

Colin S. MacDonald

A Dictionary of Canadian Artists, volumes 1-8 by Colin S. MacDonald, and volume 9 (online only), by Anne Newlands and Judith Parker
National Gallery of Canada / Musée des beaux-arts du Canada