Work & Bio

Alfred Pellan

Born in 1904
 / Died in 1988

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Biography

 

 

Alfred Pellan

BORN:  May 16, 1904, Quebec City, PQ

DIED: October 31, 1988, Leval, PQ

“What enchantment is Pellan’s color! We are led from one joy to another: it shines, it bursts, it vibrates and resounds with intensity.”
(Maurice Gagnon, in Pellan, 1943)

The art of Alfred Pellan progressed from representational images to abstracted simplified forms and surrealist images. He also painted murals, designed theatre costumes and stained glass, and illustrated books. Girl with Anemones (1932), an early painting that contrasts shape, colour and line, bridges his representational images and later abstract interests.

In 1920 Pellan enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts in Quebec City. His talent was quickly recognized and the National Gallery of Canada bought his painting A Corner of Old Quebec (1922) when he was only seventeen. He was awarded a Quebec government scholarship in 1926 to go to Paris, where he worked in the studio of Lucien Simon for four years and studied at the École des Beaux-Arts. He revelled in the contemporary art scene, familiarizing himself with the work of Van Gogh, Matisse, Picasso, and Miró, among others. It was through these artists’ fractured and abstracted forms, bold use of colour, and flattening of three-dimensional space that Pellan found his own artistic direction.

Pellan had his first solo exhibition in Paris at the Académie Ranson in 1935. At this time he also worked as a graphic designer and designed fabric for the well-known couturier Schiaparelli. He was included in the 1939 Washington exhibition Paris Painters of Today, along with Picasso, Derain, Dufy, and Dalí. With the outbreak of the Second World War, Pellan returned to Quebec and had two exhibitions of his Parisian production in Quebec City and Montreal, which had an enormous catalyzing influence on the local artists. He settled in Montreal, and in 1943 he was put in charge of the advanced painting course at the École des Beaux-Arts. In addition to drawing and painting he illustrated books and provided set and costume designs for a 1946 Montreal theatre production of Shakespeare’s La Nuit des rois (Twelfth Night). Pellan was a leader of the short-lived Prisme d’Yeux (1948), a group that sought an art freed from all bonds of time and place, and of restrictive ideology … that can adulterate its expression or compromise its purity.

Pellan left teaching in 1952 and travelled to Paris on a research fellowship from the Royal Society of Canada. He stayed for three years, culminating in a retrospective of his work in 1955 at the Musée d’Art moderne de la Ville de Paris. He continued to paint and exhibit in Montreal following his return.

Courtesy the National Gallery of Canada

PELLAN, Alfred (Alfred Pelland)

1906-1988

Born in Quebec City, P.Q., the second son of Alfred Pellan and Maria-Régina Damphousse, brother of Réginald (b. 1905) and Diane (b. 1907). His mother died (c. 1908) leaving his father, a locomotive engineer, to raise the family with the help of a maid. His father took advantage of his off-duty time to be with his children for family walks, games and took them to visit his big locomotive of the Frontenac Express which ran between Quebec and Montreal. This gave Alfred a great source of pride and for a few years he thought his father actually owned his own locomotive. When he was ten he received for Christmas, a working model of a locomotive his father made for him. The model is still his proud possession and rests on a ledge of a playroom of his home. Until the age of thirty-seven he suffered from undetected appendicitis. He was often away from school and when back at his desk would constantly sketch on the margins of his copy book. He did exceptionally well in his art class and not so well in his other subjects which interested him little. Once his father was confined to his home by an illness and bought some art supplies. When he returned to work and laid aside his paints, they were discovered by his son Alfred. It was then that the boy realized painting was what he wanted to do for a living. His first attempts, as related by his biographer Germain Lefebvre, were copies of calendar and magazine pictures which then gave way to his sketching from nature. Traveling to and from his subjects he carried his material on a handcart. At a chosen site strollers and playmates looking over his shoulder and asking questions bothered him so much that he found more interest in working at home on still life subjects experimenting with compositional arrangements. Little of his early work survives. In 1920 he entered the Ecole des Beaux- Arts in Quebec City with the whole-hearted support of his father. He saved his allowances for art materials by taking his lunch breaks at home and walking back and forth to school. He enjoyed the understanding of the school director, Jean Bailleul and was able to choose his teachers and plan his own schedules. He was a serious student and the faculty was so impressed with his hard work that they allowed him possession of a key to the school studios to pursue his studies beyond the hours of regular classes. There were however limited facilities to study works of more modern movements in the form of reproductions. Pellan did well in his studies winning prizes every year and in his final year he won all the prizes given for drawing, painting, sculpture, pen drawing, anatomy and sketching. He was accorded the unusual honour of having one of his paintings Coin du vieux Quebec purchased by the National Gallery of Canada in 1923 during its showing at the Montreal Spring Exhibition. In 1925 he was awarded the grand prize of a poster competition organized in Quebec by the Kiwanis Frolics Program but the greatest reward for the young student was a Quebec Government painting bursary to study in Paris. A co-winner, Omer Parent received his bursary for study in decorative arts and accompanied him to Paris. Pellan arrived in the city in the early autumn of 1926 and after a few weeks of freedom enrolled in the Ecole supérieure nationale des Beaux-Arts de Paris where he attended his classes faithfully in order to meet the requirements of the bursary. Then he attended the studio of Lucien Simon considered by many to be the best teacher of painting available. Simon recommended Pellan for the school’s first prize for painting which he received in 1928. He spent short periods living in the premises of the Canadian pavilion of the cité universitaire and the United States pavilion. But he joined his friends at the Ecole Supérieure and lived in the Montparnasse section of Paris where survival was easy with low rents and inexpensive meals aided by a further spirit of camaraderie often in reciprocation of a kind action of a fellow artist a day or week before. Pellan was drawn into the mainstream of contemporary art, a world apart from the  traditionalism of Quebec. In 1935 he attracted attention of critics with his exhibition at the Académie Ranson, particularly the attention of Jacques Lassaigne who noted the ability of Pellan to assimilate the lessons of Picasso and Bonnard aid others in fine still lifes while still maintaining his own identity. The same year Pellan won first prize for his Composition abstraite en rouge et noir (now titled Instruments de musique), in the Salon de L’Art mural de Paris judged by artists such as Robert Delaunay and Ossip Zadkine. Artists exhibiting included Léger and Picasso making this achievement of Pellan an impressive one. He visited Picasso on two occasions and on the second was able to see this famous artist’s work in his studio. Picasso expressed an interest in seeing Pellan’s paintings but the young Canadian felt he was not ready to have his work seen by such a great artist, aid put the matter off until the meeting simply never took place. Pellan preferred to work at the academies of the Grande Chaumière or the Colarossi. Sales of his paintings were not sufficient to live on so he obtained a number of commissions for graphic design and for a period worked for a poster publisher, designed a parfume bottle for Revillon, painted directly onto the fabric of dresses designed by Schiaparelli. Some of his dresses were acquired by Madame Mirò when she shopped at the Côte d’Azur. Pellan at times was not able to make enough to get along so he reluctantly asked his father for financial assistance which was willingly given. In 1935 Pellan visited Florence on his motorcycle accompanied by the actor Alin Cuny. In 1936 his father persuaded him to return to Canada and apply for a teaching post at the École des Beaux-Arts de Québec. He consigned all his baggage and materials in Paris in the event that his return to Canada was only a temporary move. An interview was arranged by his father with Joseph Simard, Secretary of the Province, and proof was required of his ability regardless of the success Pellan had achieved in Paris. So Pellan did a few paintings and sculptures. Two of the artists who had sent him to Paris were among those reviewing the applicant, Clarence Gagnon and Horatio Walker. He was afterwards interviewed by Simard. Pellan expressed his great admiration for Braque, Juan Gris, Klee, Léger, Matisse, Mirò and Picasso. It was then decided that his work was too modern, too avant-garde and therefore a bad influence on the students. With his father’s full understanding Pellan quite happily packed his bags and returned to Paris where his abstracts, still lifes and portraits had been well received. In 1937 he visited Greece and spent three weeks on the island of Santorin, traveling with two architects attached to Le Corbusier’s studio. The scenery influenced him profoundly, even years later Santorin was the subject of one of his paintings. In 1937 he was unexpectedly surprised by a visit of the Minister of Fine Arts of France and the curator of the Musée de Fontainebleau and their purchase of two of his paintings, one of which now hangs in the Musée de Jeu de Paume (Musée national d’Art Moderne, Paris) and another painting in the Musée de Grenoble. His work continued to attract the interest of critics like H.W. Sendberg a Dutch journalist, during a group exhibition in the Hague (1937-38). By 1939 Pellan was recognized as one of the important painters of the French School which included Dufy, Dali, Fautrier and Picasso, all of whom participated in the 1939 show Paris Painters of Today at the Museum of Modern Art in Washington. He also became a painter of the gallery of Jeanne Bucher whose other artists included Braque, Ernst, Kandinsky, Léger, Lurçat, Marcoussis, Picasso, Arp, Giacometti and Lipchitz. World War 1I brought an end to Pellan’s stay in Paris. He gathered together his work (more than 400 paintings and drawings) and personal effects and shipped them home to Quebec. He had to leave his sculpture behind. His return trip was paid for by the Quebec Government who took several of his paintings as payment. He arrived in Quebec City in June, 1940. From his European work he chose 161 pieces for an exhibit, within days of his arrival, at the Musée de la Province de Québec. The same exhibit was shown at the Art Association of Montreal (this exhibit was slightly reduced in size because of the limited space). Robert Ayre on viewing the show for The Montreal Standard prophetically remarked, If Alfred Pellan stays at home, he ought to be a vital influence in Canadian painting. He might have an effect on public taste, but if that is slow in developing, his example and the fact that the Provincial Museum has acquired some of his works may give courage to painters who have been trying to break away from the old established habits. Ayre’s favorable appreciation was shared by Maurice Gagnon, Marcel Parizeau and Reynald of La Presse. Pellan had been staying with his father since his return from France and now decided to live in Montreal stopping for a few weeks at Philip Surrey’s studio until finding a place of his own a block away at 3714 Jeanne Mance Street. In this area, lived many painters as well as actors, poets and musicians. He renewed old friendships with Jean-Charles Harvey, Dr. Dumas and widened his circle of colleagues through Philip Surrey to include Jori Smith, Jean Palardy, John Lyman, Jacques de Tonnancour, Goodridge Roberts and others. He was attracted particularly to the group of artists connected with the Ecole du Meuble who were deep into progressive trends in art led by Paul-Emile Borduas; others like Maurice Gagnon, librarian at the school, and Marcel Parizeau, teacher in architecture became his close friends. He participated in the group show Première exposition des Independants along with John Lyman, Goodridge Roberts, Philip Surrey, Eric Goldberg, Louise Gadbois, Louis Muhlstock, Paul-Emile Borduas, Mary Bouchard, Jori Smith and Stanley Cosgrove. In 1941 he spent the summer as guest of Jori Smith and her film director husband Jean Palardy. His first few weeks were spent in complete relaxation and then he painted a number of landscapes and portraits of young girls who visited the Palardys. These paintings he exhibited in his studio in December of that year to the delight of the critics and his patrons. He participated in several group shows, then with great success in New York City at the Bignou Gallery during April of 1942 where he was lauded by critics including Doris Bain of Art News as follows, After some early training in his home town he went to Paris, became a member of good standing of its school, and remained there till 1940 when he came home with shows and sales all over Europe to his credit. In his middle thirties, he seems to have just hit his top stride in time for his first New York exhibition, because the brightest, gayest, and for our taste the best of his compositions bear the date 1942. Earlier works are in a primitivish vein and there are also some worthy excursions into Surrealism. But the new Pellans are semi-abstractions full of pattern and painted in a Matisse-derived palette. Flat paint is used to indicate still-life objects which seem paper thin but have an odd sort of three dimensional quality full of verve and daring. Pellan can’t stand empty space and fills it all up with charming pattern, covering coffee pots, sauce pans, and even lemons with polka dots, using French wall-paper as background for still-lifes full of flowers, fruit, and checked tablecloths. And it is all organized. Despite this good reception in New York, Pellan made no sales due perhaps to a pro-American artist campaign to bring the American public behind the artists of their own country. Braque also made no sales. In 1943 Pellan completed a commission of two murals for the Canadian Legation in Rio de Janeiro depicting Canada West and East. This same year he joined the staff of tie Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Montreal, then under the directorship of Charles Maillard in eminent painter but rigid traditionalist in teaching. Pellan’s liberal approach to teaching soon brought him in conflict with Maillard and involved the students as well. The situation reached a climax following a lecture at the Montreal Botanical Garden by French painter Fernand Léger who publicly decried academic art. Léger was a close friend of Pellan and stayed at the latter’s place during his visit to Montreal. Students attending the lecture from the Beaux-Arts were carried away with the moment and cried down with Maillard and down with academism. Pellan was blamed and matters went from bad to worse but finally Maillard resigned and was succeeded by Marcel Parizeau, the progressive teacher of architecture from the Ecole de Meuble and friend of Pellan. After only a few weeks Parizeau did suddenly and was in turn succeeded by Roland Charlebois, a miniaturist painter. Pellan continued teaching at the Beaux-Arts until 1952. About the time Pellan joined the staff of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Borduas became offended by Pellan’s acceptance of such a position which would seem to align him with regular traditional forms of study limiting the freedom of the students to anything other than the prescribed guidelines of the various courses. But Pellan had joined the school to implement his own ideas and made an attempt to explain this to Borduas. He went to Borduas’ house to give his position but Borduas had already made up his mind that he had gone over to the traditionalists (some other reasons have been suggested by Germain Lefebvre including rivalry felt by Borduas). From that point on Pellan and Borduas went their separate ways taking with them their respective followings of young artists; Borduas leading the Automatists and Pellan the Prisme d’Yeux. While both movements sought liberation from the traditionalism of Quebec, the Automatistes chose the non-objective path while the Prisme d’Yeux chose a variety of new ways to see the world around them through Surrealism, Cubism, or in the words of the Prisme d’Yeux manifesto drafted by Jacques de Tonnancour in 1948, We seek a painting liberated from all contingencies of time and place, from restrictive ideology and conceived without literary, political, philosophical or any other interference which could adulterate expression and compromise its purity. Those signing the Prisme d’Yeux manifesto included: Pellan, de Tonnancour, Louis Archambault, Leon Bellefleur, Albert Dumouchel, Gabriel Filion, Pierre Gauvreau, Arthur Gladu, Jean Benoit, Lucien Morin, Mimi Parent, Jeanne Rheaume, Goodridge Roberts, Roland Truchon and Gordon Webber. This was a loose knit group who thrived during the period 1946-50 at the Ecole des Arts graphiques where Albert Dumouchel was teaching printmaking and where three editions of Les Ateliers d’Art graphique were conceived. Other attending artists to the Ecole des Arts graphiques included Jean-René Ostiguy, Jean Leonard, Gerard Tremblay, Gilles Henault and Roland Giguère. But the Prisme d’Yeux movement, because of its broad concept did not move forward with the same thrust as the Automatiste group, founded with the manifesto Refus Global which sought liberation from prevailing social structures of Quebec. The Refus global struck out at the oppressive forces of society and gained front rank status with the intellectual revolutionaries. Pellan’s Prisme d’Yeux was more of an artistic revolution and for this reason had a comparatively limited appeal. Among Pellan’s followers was a most attractive young woman named Madeleine Polisena who attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. They met one evening in 1947 during a reception at Jacques de Tonnancour’s home and were married on July 23rd, 1949. They moved in 1950 from Pellan’s studio on Jeanne Mance Street to the Auteuil house, an old Canadian home on a quiet road along the Mille Illes River near St. Rose East, north of Montreal. There he changed the inside of the house to accommodate a large studio. The walls of the house were painted white to accommodate the many mementos, paintings, and decorations he and Madeleine had gathered together over the years. In 1952 he was awarded a Royal Society of Canada fellowship for research studies in France and arrived in Paris with his wife. Disappointed he found that the Paris he knew twelve years before had vanished. He turned his attentions to his work after finding a studio at 19 bis Avenue Victor-Hugo, Boulogne-sur-Seine. He had also brought a large collection of his paintings from Canada and exhibited them on a number of important occasions, drawing praise from André Breton at a solo show in the Coq Liban, Paris, in 1954. But his most memorable event was his retrospective show at the Musée national d’Art moderne in Paris in February and March of 1955 when articles of praise appeared in a number of French newspapers. His painting La Chouette measuring 82 x 66 was purchased by the Museum and is a magnificently intricate surrealistic work with a central nude figure of a woman with an owl-like head, surrounded by symbols of time, love, the night, and a host of other elements, unified by Pellan’s subtle use of green and the Jackson Pollock-like calligraphy woven through much of the composition. In November of 1956 Pellan returned to his studio in Ste. Rose, Quebec and the same month an exhibition of his work initiated by Mayor Drapeau was held at the Montreal city hall in the Hall of Honour. Some controversy centered around a few of his paintings in that a councillor tried to have them removed because they depicted women not in keeping with the councillor’s Christian standards. But only one picture was actually removed. The Montreal Star noted, It consists of more than 100 works, from drawings about twelve inches by nine to canvases nearly seven feet by six. I thought it rather touching that the artist should include his first picture ‘Les Fraises’ painted when he was fourteen, and two others from the next year. It is as if he continues to be astonished at himself — ‘Look how far I have come!’ And this contradicts the impression of arrogance you may sometimes get from Pellan’s painting. It isn’t arrogance. It’s just the virtuoso’s delight in the exercise of his powers and the pictorial world he exploits for its own sake, the world of the eye. . . . There are over­tones of mystery here, too. Some of the paintings carry a surrealist burden of the portentous. But it isn’t the hidden that is the strength of Pellan’s art; it is the explicit, in a wealth of inventiveness and fantasy. In 1957 Pellan won first prize in the mural competition for the City Centre Building in Montreal. The contest was country-wide for the mosaic mural, which overlooks the main foyer of the ton storey building, and was laid by Joseph Iliu noted mosaic artist. In 1958 he received a Canada Council fellowship award and set to work on his series of Jardin paintings, six of which were exhibited in a showing at the Denyse Delrue Gallery in April of 1958 when among other reviewers, Dorothy Pfeiffer in The Gazette favourably noted, There was a time when one seldom mentioned Pellan without at the same time thinking of Picasso. But that time is past. Alfred Pellan need kow-tow to no one. He has become his own unique influence and master of amazingly decorative concentration and effect. . . . Certain sections of his enormous canvasses — or murals — are covered with brilliant-squiggles of thick paint giving one the impression of having been squeezed from a pastry-tube. While on other sections are affixed shells, beads, jackstraws, sprinkled sand and glass. In some places the paint is so lavish it looks as if it had been mixed with mortar. All the paintings give out a glow, cast a spell, or make one blink with their mysterious light. Perhaps in this series Jardin bleu is one of the most beautiful and enchanting canvases measuring 54-1/4 x 73-1/2 feet, in essence a night scene of the most gorgeous blue accented by the tiny white lights of a timeless hamlet. In the sky is the love theme of man and woman arched around a glowing candle set inside a muted moon. This painting is reproduced in Germain Lefebvre’s book Pellan (P. 103). In 1960 Pellan was honoured by a retrospective exhibition sponsored jointly by the National Gallery of Canada, the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts and the Art Gallery of Toronto (one in a series of shows devoted to senior Canadian artists). Among his other notable mural commissions are: a painting for the Winnipeg Airport (1963); Place des Arts, Mtl., stained glass window (1963); National Library of Canada, two murals, one a tribute to writing of all civilizations and the other on subjects covered by the library’s basic book collections (1968). After about 1965 Pellan’s awards followed in quick succession through greater appreciation for his achievements in the visual arts. He also made a brilliant contribution to the theatre by design of props, costumes, sets and makeup for the plays Madeleine et Pierre by André Audet (1944-45), La nuit des rois by Shakespeare put on by Compagnons de Saint­Laurent, Gesu, Mtl. (1946) and a later version by Théâtre du Nouveau Monde, Place des Arts, Mtl. (1968-69) and also designed the curtain maquette for the Montreal Theatre Ballet (1957). While discussion here of Pellan’s works would follow along an endless highway, mention should be made of his Végétaux marins (1964), a most brilliantly imaginative painting allowing the viewer to peer from the multicoloured seabed to the surface above, the seabed and surface joined by two dark vegetal forms reaching upwards through the translucent blue water lit by daylight and accented by a colourful drifting egg-shaped marine creature. This painting is owned by the Art Collection Society of Kingston (see Pellan, P. 133). His solo shows include the following: Académie Ranson, Paris (1935); Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris (1939); Musée de la Province de Québec (1940); Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (1940); Galerie Bignou, NYC (1942); Galerie Municipal, Que. (1942); Galerie l’Atelier, Ott. (1952); Coq Liban, Paris (1954); Cercle Paul Valéry, Paris (1954); Musée national d’Art moderne, Paris (retrospective, 1955); Hall of Honour, City Hall, Mtl. (retrospective, 1956); Laing Galleries, Tor. (Nov. 1957); Galerie Denyse Delrue, Mtl. (1958, Hommage à Pellan, 1960); Robertson Gal., Ott. (1960); NGC, MMFA, Mus. Que., AGT (retrospective, 1960-61); Roberts Gal. Tor. (1961); Gal. Libre, Mtl. (Présence de Pellan, 1963); Kitchener-Waterloo Art Gallery (1964); Howard Domain, Sherbrooke, P.Q. (1964); Roberts Gal. Tor. (1964); WAG (1968); Musée d’Art Contemporain (Voir Pellan, 1969); Mus. Que., MMFA, NGC (Pellan, 1972-73); Ecole des Arts visuels, Univ. Laval, Que. (Pellan — Costumes et décors de théâtre, 1972); Galerie de Montréal (Décors et costumes, gouaches d’Alfred Pellan, 1972). His awards and distinctions include: Prov. of Quebec Bursary, Paris (1926-30); 1st Prize in poster competition, Kiwanis Frolics Program, Que. (1926); 1st Prize Première Grande Exposition d’Art mural de Paris (1935); represented Canada at Art Inst. of Chicago exhibit of artists from 40 countries (1945); 1st Prize, painting, 65th Annual Spring Show, MMFA (1948); 1st Prize, Quebec Competition (1948); Bursary, Royal Society of Canada for research in France (1952-53); 1st Prize, mural competition, City Centre Bldg., Mtl. (1957); Prof. of Painting at Canadian Art Centre (1958); National prize, painting, Univ. Alta. (1959); Canada Council Medal (1965); Jury member of Quatrième Biennale de Paris (1965); Companion of the Order of Canada (1967); Centenary Medal Canada Confed.; NFB Voir Pellan (1969); Doctorate, honoris causa, philosophy (fine arts), Univ. Ottawa. (1969); RCS (1971); Doctorate, honoris causa, arts, Univ. Laval (1971); Doctorate, honoris causa, law, Sir Geo. Wms. Univ. Mtl. (1971); Prix Philippe Hébert, Soc. Saint-Jean Baptiste (1972); Molson’s Prize (1973); Doctorate, honoris causa, Univ. Montreal (1974).

Colin S. MacDonald

A Dictionary of Canadian Artists, volumes 1-8 by Colin S. MacDonald, and volume 9 (online only), by Anne Newlands and Judith Parker
National Gallery of Canada / Musée des beaux-arts du Canada

Studied at

Ecole des Beaux-Arts du Quebec from the age of fourteen until 1925.  He excelled at his studies, often winning most, if not all, year-end awards.  Was awarded a Quebec Government painting bursary to study in Paris at the Ecole Superieure National des Beaux-Arts, at which Pellan also won the year end prize for painting in 1928, studying under Lucien Simon.  Returned to Paris in 1952 on a reasearch studies fellowship.

Awards

1935, First prize in the Salon de L’Art in Paris which contained work by Fernand Leger and Pablo Picasso
1957, First Prize, City of Montreal City Centre Building mural competition
1958, Canadian Concil fellowship
1958, Professor of Painting at Canadian Art Centre
1965, Canada Concil Medal
1967, Companion of the Order of Canada

Professional Activities

1923, Had the uncommon honour of a purchase of one of his works by the National Gallery of Canada at the age of 16. To supliment his income as a painter in Paris, worked as a poster publisher and took on design commsions which included a perfume bottle design, and collaboration with clothing designers. Founded the painting movement “Prisme d’Yeux” in Quebec with Jaque de Tonnancour. By 1939 was considered one of the imporant figures in the French School, which included artists such as Raoul Dufy and Salvador Dali.

Taught at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts du Montreal from 1943-1952. Unrest broght on by the progressive views of himself and visiting friends like Fernand Leger lead to the resignation of conservative Ecole des Beaux-Arts director Charles Millard.  Despite this, Pellan’s position in an acedemic setting still offened friend and contempory Paul-Emile Borduas. From around 1944-69, produced designs for theatrical productions.

Commissions

1963, Place des Arts, Montreal, stained glass window
1963, Winnipeg Airport, mural
1968, Two murals for the Canadian Legation in Rio de Janeiro depicting Eastern and Western Canada.

Solo Exhibitions

1954, Coq Liban, Paris

Group Exhibitions

1923, Montreal Spring Exhibtion
1935, Academie Ranson, Paris
1942, Bignou Gallery, New York
1937, The Hague
1939, Museum of Modern Art, Washinton
1940, Musee de la Provence de Quebec
1940, Art Association of Montreal
1955, Musee National d’Art, Paris (retrospective)
1956, Hall of Honour, Montreal City Hall
1958, Denyse Delrue Gallery, Montreal
1960, National Gallery of Canada, Art Gallery of Ontario, Montreal Museum of Fine Art (retrospective)

Collections

National Gallery of Canada
Musee National d’Art Moderne, Paris
Musee National d’Art, Paris
Musee de la Provence de Quebec
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Many private and private collections around the world